Nursery Rhymes

Cold War Timeline

The dates and events leading to the Cold War
Communist witch hunt and loyalty tests
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NASA and the space race
Construction and destruction of the Berlin Wall

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1945

 Defeat of Germany and Japan

February 4-11: Yalta Conference meeting of FDR, Churchill, Stalin - the 'Big Three'
Soviet Union has control of Eastern Europe. The Cold War Begins

May 8: VE Day - Victory in Europe. Germany surrenders to the Red Army in Berlin

July: Potsdam Conference - Germany was officially partitioned into four zones of occupation. 

August 6: The United States drops atomic bomb on Hiroshima (20 kiloton bomb 'Little Boy' kills 80,000)

August 8: Russia declares war on Japan

August 9: The United States drops atomic bomb on Nagasaki (22 kiloton 'Fat Man' kills 70,000)

August 14 : Japanese surrender End of World War II

August 15: Emperor surrender broadcast - VJ Day

1946

 February 9: Stalin hostile speech - communism & capitalism were incompatible

March 5 : "Sinews of Peace" Iron Curtain Speech by Winston Churchill - "an "iron curtain" has descended on Europe"

March 10 - Truman demands Russia leave Iran

July 1: Operation Crossroads with Test Able was the first public demonstration of America's atomic arsenal

July 25: America's Test Baker - underwater explosion

1947

 Containment

March 12 : Truman Doctrine - Truman declares active role in Greek Civil War

June : Marshall Plan is announced setting a precedent for helping countries combat poverty, disease and malnutrition

September 2 - Rio Pact - U.S. meet 19 Latin American countries and created a security zone around the hemisphere

1948

 Containment

February 25 : Communist takeover in Czechoslovakia

March 2: Truman's Loyalty Program created to catch Cold War spies

March 17: Brussels Pact organized to protect Europe from communism

June 24 : Berlin Blockade begins lasting 11 months

1949

 Containment

April 4 : NATO ratified

May 12 : Berlin Blockade ends

29 August : Russia tested its first atomic bomb

October 1 : Communist Mao Zedong takes control of China and establishes the People's Republic of China

December 1 - Chiang Kai-shek moved to Formosa and created Nationalist government

1950

 January 30 - Truman approved H-bomb development

February : Joe McCarthy begins Communist witch hunt and loyalty tests

June 24: Korean War begins. Stalin supports North Korea who invade South Korea equipped with Soviet weapons

1951

 January 12 : Federal Civil Defense Administration established

April 11 - Truman fires MacArthur

1952

 A-bombs developed by Britain

1953

 March 17-June 4 Nuclear Arms Race atomic test series of 11 explosions at Nevada Test Site

April 15: RAND report on the "Vulnerability of U. S. Strategic Air Power"

July : Korean War ends

December 8: Ike's Atoms for Peace speech

1954

 March 1: H-bomb Castle-Bravo test

March : KGB established

CIA helps overthrow unfriendly regimes in Iran and Guatemala

July : Vietnam split at 17th parallel

1955

 May : Warsaw Pact formed

1956

 June 29: USSR sent tanks into Poznan, Poland, to suppress demonstrations by workers

September 4: USSR sent military aid to Afghanistan

October - November : Rebellion put down in Communist Hungary.

October 29: Suez Crisis began with Israeli attack led by Moshe Dayan against Egyptian forces in the Sinai

Egypt took control of Suez Canal

1957

 August 26: Vostok rocket launched 1st ICBM

October 4 : Sputnik launched into orbit

November 3: Sputnik II launched - Laika died in space

1958

 January 31: Explorer I launched

July : NASA began Mercury project using Atlas rocket

November : Khrushchev demands withdrawal of troops from Berlin

1959

 January : Cuba taken over by Fidel Castro

September : Khrushchev visits United States; The Kitchen Debate

1960

 A-bombs developed by France

May : Soviet Union reveals that U.S. spy plane was shot down over Soviet territory

November : John F. Kennedy elected President of USA

December 19: Cuba openly aligns itself with the Soviet Union and their policies.

1961

 April : Bay of Pigs invasion see Cuban Missile Crisis Timeline

August 13 : Berlin border is closed

August 17 : Construction of Berlin Wall begins

1962

 U.S. involvement in Vietnam increases see Vietnam War Timeline

October : Cuban Missile Crisis see Cuban Missile Crisis Timeline

1963

 1963: July : Nuclear Test Ban Treaty ratified

1963: November : President Kennedy assassinated in Dallas, Texas

1964

 August : Gulf of Tonkin incident - see Vietnam War Timeline

October: A-bombs developed by China

1965

 April : U.S. Marines sent to Dominican Republic to fight Communism

July : Announcement of dispatching of 200,000 U.S. troops to Vietnam

1966

 B-52s Bomb North Vietnam

1967

 The US Secretary of Defence Robert McNamara admits that the US bombing raids had failed to meet their objectives

1968

 January : North Korea captured U.S.S. Pueblo

President Johnson does not run for the presidency and Richard Nixon Elected President of the USA

August : Soviet Red Army crush Czechoslovakian revolt

1969

 July 20 : Apollo 11 lands on the moon

1970

 April : President Nixon extends Vietnam War to Cambodia

1971

 Publication of the Pentagon Papers

1972

 February: President Richard Nixon visits China

July : SALT I signed

1973

 January : Cease fire in Vietnam between North Vietnam and United States

September : U.S. supported coup overthrows Chilean government

October : Egypt and Syria attack Israel; Egypt requests Soviet aid

1974

 1974: August : President Nixon resigns

1975

 April 17 : North Vietnam defeats South Vietnam which falls to Communist forces

1976

 February: Soviet and Cuban forces help to install Communist government in Angola.

1979

 January: U.S. and China establish diplomatic relations.

July : SALT II signed

November : Shah of Iran overthrown; Iranian Hostage Crisis

December: Soviet forces invade Afghanistan

1980

 August: Polish shipyard workers strike Solidarity Union formed. Strike leader Lech Walesa is elected as the head of Solidarity

1983

 President Reagan proposes Strategic Defence Initiative

1983: October : U.S. troops invades and overthrows regime in Grenada

1985

 Mikhail Gorbachev becomes leader of the Soviet Union initiating a campaign of openness called "glasnost" and restructuring called "perestroika"

1986

 October : President Reagan and Gorbachev resolve to remove all intermediate nuclear missiles from Europe

1987

 October : Reagan and Gorbachev agree to remove all medium and short-range nuclear missiles

1989

 January : Soviet troops withdraw from Afghanistan

June : Poland becomes independent

September : Hungary becomes independent

November : Berlin Wall is demolished and East Germany allows unrestricted migration to West Germany

December : Communist governments fall in Czechoslovakia, Bulgaria, and Rumania

Decline of the Soviet empire

1990

 March : Lithuania becomes independent

May 29 : Boris Yeltsin elected as President of Russia

October 3 : Germany reunited

1991

 August : End of Soviet Union and the Cold War Ends

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