Clovis Culture (named because of artefacts found at Blackwater Draw, Clovis, New Mexico
Folsom Culture (named after artefacts found at Folsom, New Mexico
Eastern Woodland Culture begins
Copper culture begins along the Great Lakes
Pecos Culture begins producing rock paintings
Anasazi build cliff cities at Mesa Verde, Colorado
Mound Builders culture
Bow and arrow weapon introduced
Woodland Culture Period:
Mississippian Culture established - Cahokia is the capital
Christopher Columbus discovers America
The Europeans brought diseases such as typhoid, yellow fever, smallpox, measles and influenza to the indigenous population. Their numbers fell from 80 million to less than 1 million in less than 500 years
Alonzo de Pineda explores gulf Coast of America (Florida area) and encounters Calusa Indians
Giovanni Verrazano discovers New York Bay
Panfilo de Narvaez conquers Cuba and explores Florida and Alvar Cabeza de Vaca explores Texas, Arizona and New Mexico
:Jacques Cartier explores the Great Lakes and the the St. Lawrence River encountering the Native Americans of the region
Hernando de Soto explores south-eastern North America defeating resistance from Timucuan warriors, leading to the Napituca Massacre.
Francisco Vázquez de Coronado explores south-western North America and Mexico defeating Zuni Pueblo Indians. Later involved with fighting the Choctaws
Francisco Vásquez de Coronado explores Kansas and New Mexico which led to the Tiguex War
Cabrillo explores and discovers the Californian coast and the Californian Indians
Tristan de Luna explores North America
Francisco de Ibarra explores New Mexico
Sir Martin Frobisher explores Baffin Bay and the Hudson Strait
Philip Amadas and Arthur Barlowe (both in the service of Sir Walter Raleigh) explore the coast of North Carolina
Walter Raleigh receives the patent to explore and settle in North America. Walter Raleigh's fleet of seven vessels under Richard Grenville and Ralph Lane, with 108 men, reach Roanoke Island and the Virginia colony of Roanoke Island established
Juan de Archuleta explores Colorado
Captain John Smith explorer and founder of Jamestown
Henry Hudson explores North eastern North America including the Hudson River
Pocahontas marries John Rolfe
The Mayflower arrived at Plymouth to found first colony in New England
1622-1624 The Powhatan Confederacy in Virginia between colonists and Native Indian Americans
The First Reservations were established by Puritans near New Haven, Connecticut
The Pequot War - The Pequots were defeated by the colonists led by John Underhill and John Mason allied with the Narragansetts and Mohegans.
1640 - 1701 - The Beaver Wars, also known as the Iroquois Wars or the French and Iroquois Wars
1655 - The Peach Tree War, The Susquehannock Nation and allied Native Americans on ssettlements around New Amsterdam
1675 - 1677 King Philip's War so named after Metacomet of the Wampanoag tribe, who was called Philip by the English.
1680-1692: The Pueblo Revolt occurred in New Mexico and Arizona between the Tuscarora Native Americans and the Spanish.
1689 - 1763 The French and Indian War between France and Great Britain for the lands in the New World. The Iroquois Indians were allied to the French and the Algoquian tribes were alliedt o the British
1711-1713: The Tuscarora War between the Tuscarora Native Americans and European settlers in Northern Carolina. The Tuscarora were defeated
The Yamasee War - The Yamasee against the white settlements in South Carolina
Iroquois surrender claims to land south of the Ohio River in addition to counties in the eastern panhandle
1756 - 1763: The Seven Years War (French and Indian War) due to disputes over land is won by Great Britain. France gives England all French territory east of the Mississippi River, except New Orleans. The Spanish give up east and west Florida to the English in return for Cuba.
Treaty of Paris ends French and Indian War (1754-1763)
Pontiac's Rebellion in the Ohio River Valley. The Ottawa Chief Pontiac (1720-1769) led a rebellion against the British
December 16: The Boston Tea Party - Massachusetts patriots dressed as Mohawk Indians protest against the British Tea Act by dumping crates of tea into Boston Harbor.
Lord Dunmore's War in Southern Ohio in which Lord Dunmore, the Governor of Virginia sent 3000 solders who defeated the 1000 Native Indians
Chickamauga Wars (1776–1794) Cherokee involvement in the American Revolutionary War and continuing through late 1794
Northwest Indian War (1785–1795) in Indiana and Ohio. The Americans suffered 2 humiliating defeats by the Native Indians until they won the Battle of Fallen Timbers
Tecumseh's War - Battle of Tippecanoe (1811–1813). The Prophet, brother of Shawnee chief Tecumseh, attacked Indiana Territory but was defeated by the troops of William Henry Harrison
Creek War (1813–1814) erupted in Alabama and Georgia. The Creek Indians were defeated by American forces led by Andrew Jackson
Peoria War (1813) was conflict between the U. S. Army, settlers and the Native American tribes of the Potawatomi and the Kickapoo tribes in Illinois.
War of 1812 begins.
First Seminole War (1817–1818) erupted in Florida as the Seminole Indian tribe defended their lands and runaway slaves
Winnebago War (1827) in Wisconsin between the settlers and lead miners who were trespassing on their land and the Winnebago tribe.
Black Hawk War occurred in Northern Illinois and Southwestern Wisconsin by Sauk and Fox tribes led by Chief Black Hawk in an attempt to re-take their homeland
Creek Alabama Uprising (1835–1837) in Alabama and Georgia. It resulted in a defeat for the Creek forces and the removal of the Creek people from their native lands to the Indian Territory in present-day Oklahoma.
Second Seminole War (1835–1842) in the Florida everglade area. Under Chief Osceola
Osage Indian War (1837) with the Osage Indians in Missouri.
The Cherokee were the last of the Five Civilised Tribes (Cherokee, Choctaw, Creek, Seminal and Chickasaw) to take the enforced march on the tragic
1846 - 1863 The Navajo conflicts in New Mexico and Arizona
1854 - 1890 The Sioux Wars in South Dakota, Minnesota and Wyoming led by Crazy Horse and Sitting Bull
1855 - 1856 Rogue River War in Oregon. Indian tribes were attacked in an attempt to start a war that would enable unemployed miners to work. Survivors were forced on to reservations
Third Seminole War (1855–1858) in the Florida everglade area. The Seminole led by Chief Billy Bowleg made their last stand
U.S. Congress passes Homestead Act opening the Great Plains to settlers
1861 - 1900 Apache Wars in Arizona, New Mexico and Texas led by Geronimo and Cochise. Geronimo surrendered in 1886 but others carried on the fight until 1900
1865 - 1869 Building of Union Pacific Railroad brings settlers to the Great Plains
1865 1868 and in 1879: Ute Wars broke out in Utah due to Mormon settlers taking over their lands
1872 - 1873 Madoc War in California and Oregon led by Captain Jack
Red River War in Northern Texas against the Arapaho, Comanche, Cheyenne and Kiowa tribes,
Battle of the Rosebud in Montana. Lakota Sioux and Cheyenne under Crazy Horse cut off reinforcements intended to help Custer at the Battle of the Little Bighorn.
Nez Perce War in Oregon, Montana and Idaho led by Chief Joseph
Dawes General Allotment Act passed by Congress leads to the break up of the large Indian Reservations and the sale of Indian lands to white settlers
1890 The Wounded Knee Massacre in South Dakota. Chief Big Foot led the last stand of Sioux
Charles Curtis is the first American Indian elected to the U.S. Senate
All Indians declared citizens of U.S.
American Indian Movement (AIM)
American Indian Religious Freedom Act (Public Law 95-341 ) passed
Native American History Timeline
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